natural cancer cure


“Food is Medicine”

We have all heard this saying before, but do we really understand what this means?

Therapeutic dietary practices continue to prove their worth. Researchers now refer to foods with therapeutic applications as “functional foods”—they offer an easy and powerful way to take control of our health, and some of them have been right under our noses all along.

For example, researchers have found that parsley is much more than just a flavoring or garnish—this humble herb can offer powerful protection against some of the most common serious diseases, including cancer.

Your herb garden and spice drawer are medicine cabinets

In past articles, we’ve discussed the healing properties of varied herbs and spices. It turns out that turmeric is one of the most effective anti-inflammatories ever discovered, that ginger can fight cancer as effectively (or more so) than chemotherapy, that cilantro can chelate heavy metals from the body, and that oregano is a powerful natural antibiotic.

Research has proliferated around the use of common herbs and spices to prevent or treat cancer. Many of the most common herbs in backyard gardens are potent and sophisticated cancer fighters: oregano, rosemary, thyme, mint, sage, and last but certainly not least…parsley.

Parsley isn’t normally regarded as a health powerhouse—it’s usually used as a disposable garnish, or at most as a secondary flavoring spice. This is a far cry from ancient times, when it was valued as a sacred adornment for tombs, as well as a powerful and versatile medicine.

Modern research has now shown us that parsley deserves every bit of high regard. In order to understand how this underestimated herb can be useful for preventing or treating cancer, we’ll look at a few of its foundational health-supporting properties.

Nutrient density. We’ve written before about the great importance of a nutrient-dense diet, especially in this time of junk foods and depleted soils. Parsley checks plenty of boxes in this category, offering three times more vitamin C than oranges, as well as vitamin A, vitamin K, folate, and a variety of essential minerals. Providing your body with clean, nutrient-dense foods like parsley is always the first foundational step of preventing cancer and other health conditions.

Antioxidant activity. If there’s any principle of healthy eating that’s as critical as nutrient density, it’s oxidative stress prevention. Oxidative stress is one of the main culprits behind the development of nearly every major disease, including cancer. It’s a normal part of biological functioning, but is dramatically exacerbated by inflammatory foods, environmental toxins, unhealthy lifestyle choices (like smoking and drinking), and stress.

While the body does produce its own antioxidants endogenously (such as glutathione and melatonin), managing oxidative stress also requires an antioxidant-rich diet. Studies demonstrate that the flavonoids in parsley effectively increase the antioxidant and chelating capacities of the blood.[1]

Direct anti-cancer properties. Parley’s benefits aren’t limited to preventing cancer before it develops; research also demonstrates that it contains powerful compounds that fight cancer directly. Phenolic compounds such as apigenin, apiin, myristicin, and apiol have been shown to suppress various cancers by “triggering cell apoptosis and autophagy, inducing cell cycle arrest, suppressing cell migration and invasion, and stimulating an immune response.”[2]

These compounds appear to be especially beneficial for the lungs, and as such can protect against the cell-damaging, cancer-causing effects of smoke and other inhaled toxins.

How to use parsley medicinally

In order to enjoy the full health benefits of parsley, you’ll need to consume more than the usual decorative sprig or dash from the spice jar. Think of it as a whole food rather than a side addition. You can add loosely chopped fresh parley to salads, stir fry dishes, chilis, and soups. It’s also an excellent ingredient for homemade dips and salad dressings.

Adding parsley to smoothies is another easy way to integrate it into your life. The wide possibility of flavors and ingredients will allow you to blend up lots of parsley at once—sweet fruits like bananas and blueberries, astringent fruits like lemon and lime, and healthy nuts and seeds (or nut butters) are all great for balancing out the pungent flavor of parsley. For an extra healthy smoothie, add nutrient-dense greens like kale or spinach to the mix! Experiment with different recipes and combinations to see what works best for your palate.

While both fresh and dried parsley offer benefits, it’s usually best to choose fresh whenever possible. Levels of a few nutrients (such as potassium) appear to be more concentrated in dried parsley, but otherwise, fresh parsley is nearly always more nutrient-dense. It’s also much more flavorful, and it has the intangible benefit of being living food.



[1] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814605004073

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629766/

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Mushrooms are a fascinating and highly healthful class of foods. We even suggested in a past article that they’re the world’s most underestimated superfoods.

If you follow natural health trends, you’ve probably noticed that enthusiasm for “medicinal mushrooms” is growing quickly. Mushroom-based supplements now line the aisles of health food stores, mushroom coffee blends are gaining traction as a healthy morning pick-me-up, and researchers are continually discovering new surprising health benefits of fungi.

If mushrooms still aren’t on your radar as an essential superfood, they should be. In past articles, we’ve covered some of the most popular medicinal mushrooms, such as reishi, shitake, maitake, turkey tail, chaga, and cordyceps.

These powerful fungi boost immune function, increase disease resistance, fight illnesses and health problems, and send energy levels through the roof, all without the nasty side effects and risks so common in allopathic medicine.

Still, these superstar fungi only represent a miniscule portion of the healing mushrooms that nature has to offer. There are 10,000 documented species of “fleshy fungi” (the official, somewhat strange name for mushrooms) in North America alone—and nearly all mycologists agree that there are undiscovered species. Even when this cornucopia is weeded down to the edible and medicinal types, there are still enough mushroom species to keep you busy for a lifetime!

One type of mushroom we haven’t yet discussed is enoki (also called enokitake in Japan, Korea, and China, where they’re a common delicacy). Enoki mushrooms look rather like white stringy pasta with tiny caps (an appearance which may make them a bit easier to eat for those who generally find mushrooms creepy-looking). They have a delicate, mild taste (almost fruity), and take on a delicious, crisp texture when cooked.

Despite their delicate nature, though, enoki mushrooms pack a powerful punch when it comes to supporting your health.

The many health benefits of enokis

In case deliciousness isn’t quite enough of an incentive for you to include enoki mushrooms in your diet, don’t worry: there’s lots more to love about them. Enokis have been prized for centuries as a health tonic in Eastern medicinal doctrines, and Western doctors are even beginning to use them as a functional food for treating acute health problems, including immune dysfunction, metabolic disorders, liver disease, cholesterol imbalance, digestive disorders, and cancer.[1]

Let’s take a look at how these delicate little fungi can help you optimize your health and vitality.

Nutrient and antioxidant density. Superfoods and functional foods are touted for their acute disease-fighting abilities. They often contain compounds with very specific healing properties (we’ll talk about some of the ones in enoki mushrooms in just a bit). However, it’s easy to fall into a “magic bullet” way of thinking when focusing on specific super-healing compounds—try to remember that overall nutrient and antioxidant density is the key to sustainable healing and health maintenance.

Enoki mushrooms certainly more than measure up when it comes to nutrient density. They’re brimming with a variety of B vitamins, minerals like copper, calcium, iron, potassium, and selenium, a small amount of highly absorbable protein, and essential amino acids like lysine, ergothioneine, and valine (all of which maintain the integrity of metabolic function and optimize immune response).

Beta-glucan content. Beta-glucans are a prime example of those acutely healing compounds we mentioned above. A rising tide of research demonstrates that beta-glucans are an immensely powerful tool for balancing immune and metabolic functions.

For example, some of the beta-glucan types found in enoki mushrooms (i.e. beta-linked glucose, galactose, mannose, and fucose) trigger a dramatically increased expression of nitric oxide by immune cells. In another article, we covered how nitric oxide can help prevent heart disease and ease aging. Researchers also believe it’s one of the body’s central mechanisms for destroying diseased cells.[2]

Other research has shown that beta-glucans act as potent immunomodulators—this means they’re equally adept at balancing immune deficiency or overactivity as is necessary. They activate the body’s pathogen-destroying macrophages, stimulate white blood cell production, and even improve insulin resistance and blood cholesterol levels.[3]

Cancer-fighting compounds. Researchers are very excited about the potential medicinal mushrooms hold as a natural, side-effect-free cancer treatment—and enoki mushrooms are at the forefront of this movement. The enthusiasm was originally kicked off in 1969 by a study published in Cancer Research. The research discovered that two previously undiscovered compounds in mushrooms—flammulin and proflamin—exhibited powerful and targeted anti-tumor activity. The study also noted that inhabitants of the Nagano region of Japan (which also happens to be the heart of the country’s enoki mushroom cultivation) had extremely low rates of cancer.[4]

Corroborating research has identified enoki mushrooms (as well as some of the mushroom species in our previous articles) as essential anti-cancer foods, both for prevention and treatment.

Get started with enokis

Enoki mushrooms are less common in the United States than in Asia, but you can still often find them in well-stocked health food stores. Check at local Asian markets, as well. If worst comes to worst, you can also directly source both fresh and dried enokis from online sources.

Once you’ve found yourself a source, the sky’s the limit for culinary options: throw them into salads raw, include them in stir-fries, omelets, soups, and pasta dishes, or roll them into sushi rolls. They’ll remind you how delicious taking care of your health can be!



[1] https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1020994628109

[2] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157515000733

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663451/

[4] http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/29/3/734.full.pdf

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We’re written before about the vastly underestimated importance of sulfur as a dietary nutrient.

It’s been over twenty years since the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board has reported anything about it, but don’t let that fool you. Sulfur plays an essential role in some of the body’s most fundamental functions, including:

enzymatic activity
regulation of inflammatory response
detoxification (it’s a “sticky” molecule that easily binds to toxins and carries them out of the body)
mitochondrial energy production
oxygen transport (without which your cells literally can’t function)
proper protein binding (which optimizes the health of your bones, joints, hair, and skin).

Despite limited recognition by regulatory agencies, sulfur still has gained some fame as an anti-aging and joint support supplement. The most popular form is methyl-sulfonyl-methane, or MSM, due to its high stability and bioavailability.

While the mechanisms by which MSM works are incredibly complex and not fully understood, research has confirmed its benefits.

A pilot clinical trial at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences found that daily supplementation with MSM decreased pain and increased mobility for osteoarthritis patients, with no side effects.[1] Other studies have demonstrated the remarkable support that it provides for cardiovascular health, diabetes, mood disorders, and more.

But perhaps one of the most developed areas of MSM research is its potential as an anti-cancer agent.

How MSM fights cancer

Oncology is one the most prominent and fastest growing areas of medical research in the world. Whether or not the medical mainstream is willing to admit it, everyone tacitly knows that our current repertoire of conventional cancer treatments just aren’t working well enough (and even when chemotherapy and radiation therapy do work, they bring along with them a horrid assortment of side effects).

For this reason, research into functional foods, anti-cancer nutrients, and other alternative cancer treatment modalities (such as Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski’s antineoplaston therapy) has expanded in recent years. Researchers have quickly discovered that sulfur (particularly in the form of MSM) offer great promise as a powerful and versatile cancer treatment.

There’s still plenty of work to do, but here’s what scientists have uncovered so far.

MSM kills cancer cells and reduces tumors. This is always the true test (according to conventional oncology, at least) of an anti-cancer agent’s potential: does it directly lead to the death of cancer cells? MSM passes the test with flying colors. According to one groundbreaking study, MSM can significantly reduce the size of breast cancer tumors.[2]

Another study published in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer supported the finding and further explained MSM’s therapeutic mechanism by demonstrating that it promotes apoptosis (a process by which cancer cells are induced to destroy themselves) in gastrointestinal and esophageal cancers.

Best of all, MSM fights cancer cells and tumors without any of the damaging side effects of conventional cancer treatments, such as lymphedema (a condition commonly experienced by breast cancer patients who have undergone surgical tumor removal or radiation therapy)[3] and immune system dysfunction.

MSM increases the effectiveness of other anti-cancer agents. MSM not only is effective as a stand-alone treatment modality, but also as a complementary oncological tool. It acts us a superior delivery method when taken in conjunction with vitamin C, which in high doses has been shown to be an effective measure against cancer in its own right.

MSM also dramatically boosts the absorption and efficacy of vitamin D3, colloidal silver, and magnesium, all of which exhibit powerful antimicrobial properties and play an important role in the holistic treatment of cancer.

MSM has even been shown to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs. While the holistic methods described above are certainly preferable to such dangerous modalities, the fact of the matter is that chemotherapy is still the primary choice for many cancer patients. It’s actually illegal in some states for doctors to utilize holistic cancer treatment modalities instead of chemotherapy.

By combining chemotherapy with MSM supplementation, patients can at least attenuate some of its negative side effects, while increasing the effectiveness of the overall treatment.  

How to experience MSM’s benefits

Whether you’re interested in augmenting a cancer treatment protocol, or simply want to enjoy MSM’s many other benefits, adding more sulfur to your life is easy.

As with all nutrients, optimizing sulfur levels in the body begins with proper diet. Eating a commonsense, nutrient-dense diet will do the trick, but for best results, include sulfur-rich foods like green leafy vegetables, organic eggs, and raw milk (pasteurized milk does much more harm than good, and does not contain MSM in any usable quantities, because heating neutralizes its sulfur compounds).

If you eat meat, grass-fed meats, fish, and poultry are also good sources of sulfur (due to its other health risks, though, meat consumption should be limited and conscious).

By far the most efficient method of getting sulfur, however, is simply to take an MSM supplement. Avoid capsules, which sometimes undergo dangerous chemical processes, and instead choose organic bulk powders and flakes.

Mixing your MSM in water aids absorption and optimizes results. Because it can be hard on the stomach at first, you may want to start with just a few milligrams, and build up to 5 tablespoons daily.

High doses of MSM should be avoided if you’re taking blood thinners or aspirin, but otherwise, it’s incredibly safe for daily, long-term use.




[1] http://www.oarsijournal.com/article/S1063-4584(05)00285-2/abstract

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22485142

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24411624

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We’ve written about the healing power of medicinal mushrooms in past articles.

Medicinal mushrooms are one of the most ancient, most versatile, and most underappreciated class of natural remedies in the world. Luckily, they’re drawing an increasing level of attention from both conventional and holistic medicine, thanks to a wealth of new research.

We’ve covered how Reishi mushrooms activate your body’s self-healing abilities, how cordyceps boost stamina, immunity, and vitality, and how turkey tail, shitake, and maitake can fight cancer and encourage overall radiant health.

Another potently healing mushroom that’s gaining traction in medical circles is chaga, a fungus that grows on birch trees in the cold climate of Siberia, northern Canada, and Alaska. Chaga mushrooms have a long history of traditional usage in Russia and Northern European countries, where they’re given as a treatment for heart disease, diabetes, and gastrointestinal cancer.[1] For these reasons (and many more), chaga has also been affectionately called “black gold.”

Nowadays, chaga is making a comeback in the form of an adaptogenic add-on to coffee and tea. This practice also has a long history—chaga was used as a coffee substitute during World Wars I and II, and was used as an energizing tonic for hundreds of years prior in northern Europe.

But the benefits of chaga mushrooms go far beyond coffee substitution (though the natural energy boost they provide is certainly laudable, especially for those seeking an alternative or adjunct to caffeine).

Why you should love chaga mushrooms

When steeped into a tea, chaga mushroom makes a surprisingly delicious broth (it’s understandable why it was once used as a coffee substitute). Here’s some of the benefits you can expect when sipping this ancient remedy.

Immune improvement and performance enhancement. We’ve written before about the wonders of adaptogens. They literally teach your body how to adapt more optimally to its environment, which translates to enhanced disease resistance, metabolic function, and overall performance.

Chaga is an adaptogen and immune-boosting agent of the highest order. Studies have demonstrated that chaga directly improves immune function by boosting the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), T lymphocytes, and spleen lymphoctyes, all of which are central to immune defense.[2]

Chaga is also exemplary at minimizing systemic inflammation, which hampers immune function, slows performance, and increases the risk of disease. Reduced levels of inflammation not only unburden immune function and metabolism, but also can help prevent and treat inflammatory conditions like ulcerative colitis.[3]

Anti-viral activity. The improved immune function that chaga confers goes far beyond what many other remedies and immune tonics can offer, especially when it comes to combatting viruses. Research has shown that chaga not only helps the body defend itself against pesky viruses like the common cold and influenza, but also serious and supposedly incurable ones.

Studies have even demonstrated that chaga extracts have an anti-viral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1,[4] and that they can decrease the infective properties of the hepatitis C virus by 100 times in just 10 minutes.[5]

Cancer prevention and treatment. Despite its illustrious history of folk usage and multitude of benefits, chaga has only begun to gain real notoriety in the eyes of conventional medicine because of its promise as an anti-cancer agent. Cancer is currently the number 2 killer in the United States (second only to heart disease), so researchers are working diligently to uncover more effective treatments.

It turns out that chaga mushroom lives up to its hype as a folk treatment for cancer—even the world-renowned Memorial Sloan Cancer Center has reported that “laboratory and animal studies show that chaga can inhibit cancer progression.”[6]

Mice with tumors who were given a chaga supplement experienced a 60% reduction in tumor size, and mice with metastatic cancer (which is notoriously difficult to fight) had a 25% reduction in nodules after chaga supplementation.[7]

Mushrooms are jam packed with amazing benefit

Some chaga extracts and powdered products are offered in the form of pills, but it is generally believed that chaga must come into contact with hot water or alcohol in order to be optimally beneficial (hot water or alcohol will break down the tough cell walls of the mushroom, thus making its nutrients available for absorption). For this reason, your best bet is to stick with alcohol-based tinctures, extracts mixed into hot water, or at-home brews made with raw chaga.

Our friends over at Four Sigmatic are giving you an exclusive offer on their Mushroom Coffees, Mushroom Elixirs, Mushroom Hot Cacao and Mushroom Superfood Blends.

Did you know that medicinal mushrooms are one of the world’s most well studied superfoods and are jam packed with amazing benefits?

Chaga mushroom can help support immune functions. It is called the king of mushrooms. You’ll find growing naturally in the wild and it has antioxidant properties.

Lion’s Mane is an all-natural cognitive enhancer. It has been shown to support memory and concentration.

If you have occasional stress and difficulty sleeping, Reishi mushroom can help you relax and get a good night sleep.

Cordyceps is an adaptogen, not a stimulant, so it helps you produce and maintain steady energy levels. Coffee can give you an energy spike, followed by a crash; cordyceps, on the other hand, helps your body produce its own energy.

Click here to get 10% off your first Four Sigmatic order 



[1] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874105002564?via%3Dihub

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774877/

[3] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874112004771?via%3Dihub

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26182655

[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22462058

[6] https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/chaga-mushroom

[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946216/

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It’s no secret that mainstream oncology is in desperate need of new treatment strategies. Cancer is now the second leading cause of death in the United States. In this year’s “Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer,” analysts warned that while overall cancer mortality rates have decreased, our progress is “very limited.”[1]

Meanwhile, the incidence of cancer continues to increase every year, at a rate that some experts believe eclipses the decline in mortality rates.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy still dominate the landscape of cancer treatment, and despite the trust that mainstream doctors place in them, they’re far from perfect. In numerous past articles, we’ve outlined their dangers and limitations.

A wealth of research now demonstrates that many functional foods and natural remedies perform on par with chemotherapy without any of its side effects (they also ameliorate negative effects when used in conjunction with conventional treatments). Prominent examples include turmeric and ginger, but you can also check out the full list of top cancer-fighting foods here.

The road of reforming oncology will be a long and bureaucratic one, but new possibilities are beginning to gain traction. One natural cancer fighter that’s increasingly proving its worth is vitamin C.

If you’ve read any of our past vitamin C articles, you already know that we’re big believers in its healing capacities. We’ve said it before, and it’s worth saying again: vitamin C is one of the underrated and underutilized nutrients in existence.

Luckily, researchers are finally putting it to work against one of America’s biggest killers.

Vitamin C fights cancer from every angle

Conventional cancer treatments function according to a simple principle: remove or kill cancer cells at all cost. And sadly, the cost is usually exorbitant—tumor removal surgeries are invasive and risky, and both chemotherapy and radiation therapy kill much more than just cancer cells.

Natural cancer fighters like vitamin C are different. Throughout every stage of its metabolism in the body, vitamin C helps battle cancer in unique ways. Instead of working via the “shotgun” approach of killing cancer cells, ascorbic acid targets them directly, without harming your body’s normal, healthy cells. It also works with your body to boost natural immunity and cancer-fighting capacity.

Let’s look at a more detailed exploration of why vitamin C is such a perfect ally for those battling cancer.

Inflammation reduction. Chronic inflammation underlies a large number of chronic and degenerative diseases, and cancer is no exception. In fact, one study even refers to inflammation as “a key event in cancer development.” The researchers report that oncologists can predict the survival chances and timelines for cancer patients solely based on inflammation biomarkers, and that patients with the lowest levels of inflammation are expected to live up to two years longer, even in the absence of conventional treatment.[2]

High-dose vitamin C improves two of the most prominent inflammation biomarkers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein tumor markers.[3] Lower levels of inflammation also allow your immune system to focus its energy on fighting cancer (rather than maintaining inflammatory response).

Cancer cell gene mutation. Vitamin C also directly targets cancer cells with remarkable accuracy. When researchers looked more deeply into how ascorbic acid is able to kill cancer cells, they found that it’s able to exploit a genetic mutation shared by many cancer cells.

Due to this mutation, the uptake of vitamin C and its metabolites deactivates an enzyme necessary for processing glucose, thus effectively starving the cancer cell.[4] This incredible specificity allows ascorbic acid to destroy cancer cells without harming healthy cells.

Reactive oxygen species. In an attempt to explain how vitamin C exhibits such impressive selectivity (i.e. the ability to target a certain type of cell while leaving others untouched), researchers also discovered that even the metabolites of vitamin C are toxic to cancer cells. Vitamin C easily breaks down into hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species against which normal cells can easily protect themselves—cancer cells, on the other hand, will absorb the hydrogen peroxide and be weakened or killed by oxidative stress.[5]

How to experience the benefits of high-dose vitamin C

During most of the studies cited above, vitamin C was administered intravenously. While an increasing number of doctors and clinicians are offering IV vitamin C therapy to the general public, the process can be expensive, time-consuming, and invasive. It has been the choice of mainstream doctors and researchers, despite these drawbacks, due to its superior bioavailability compared to oral supplementation.

Fortunately, a category of drug delivery methods known as liposomes is finally making it possible to achieve high blood levels of vitamin C without resorting to injections.

Research demonstrates that liposomal vitamin C approaches the bioavailability of intravenous administration,[6] and evidence suggests that a combination of micelle and liposome encapsulation may even surpass the efficacy of IV vitamin C.

New Purathrive Micelle Liposomal Vitamin C encapsulates natural vitamin C in a phospholipid sphere – a tiny bubble made from lecithin – called a ‘liposome.’

Because regular vitamin c pills, liquids and foods have an upper limit of bioavailability due to absorption speed and the amount that could be handled by your digestive system without causing irritation and diarrhea… Purathrive Liposomal C is buffered so you can absorb more through the gut.

If you want feel the benefits of vitamin C, we suggest trying out PuraTHRIVE’s new micelle liposomal formula. It’s even made with l-ascorbic acid, a fermented form of ascorbic acid that more closely resembles natural, plant-derived sources.



[1] https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/878035

[2] http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/4/4/221

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480897/

[4] http://science.sciencemag.org/content/350/6266/1391

[5] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170109134014.htm

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915787/

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We’ve written before about the therapeutic potential of essential oils. Like most “folk remedies,” essential oils are often regarded as ineffectual at best, and quackery at worst.

Maybe aromatherapy can offer a sense of enjoyment that improves quality of life for patients, says mainstream medicine, but surely essential oils shouldn’t be considered on par with “real” medicines.

An increasing body of research is revealing that essential oils are powerful and sophisticated medicines capable of healing feats that outshine even those of allopathic medicine.

But the tide is turning, and an increasing body of research is revealing that essential oils are powerful and sophisticated medicines capable of healing feats that outshine even those of allopathic medicine.

For example, lavender essential oil kills MRSA and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria, lemon essential oil perfectly balances digestion and metabolism, and citronella and mint essential oils (as well as many other) act as powerful and toxin-free insect repellants.

That’s just a small taste of the full-spectrum healing that all of these oils have to offer. After all, essential oils are the distilled essence of Nature’s most medicinal plants, so the sophistication of their healing qualities should come as no surprise.

The art of essential oil distillation also dates back to over 5,000 years ago, so it’s fair to say that the practice has been refined to perfection (imagine the potential of some modern medical practices if they were given thousands of years to evolve).

Another essential oil that’s picking up steam in the medical community is clove essential oil.

In another article, we wrote about the many health benefits of cloves—the primary among which being their potent cancer-fighting ability. So if raw cloves are that powerful on their own, just imagine how this potency is amplified when they’re made into an essential oil.

Amplifying the power of cloves

Researchers have discovered that cloves contain a plethora of highly medicinal compounds (eugenol being the one that is of greatest interest to scientists)—and all of these healing chemicals are present in high concentrations in the essential oil of cloves. Here’s a sampling of this oil’s healing wonders, as revealed by recent studies.

The high levels of eugenol and oleanolic acid in cloves fight cancer on every level

Revolutionary cancer treatment. The high levels of eugenol and oleanolic acid in cloves fight cancer on every level. They exert a direct causative effect upon cancer cells (by increasing apoptosis and even by directly attacking the cells), inhibit tumor growth, and support the body in the process (by boosting the immune system rather than suppressing it, like chemotherapy and radiation).

Clove extracts appear to be near universal anti-cancer agents, meaning that they’ve been successfully used to treat a wide variety of cancers[1]—and clove essential oil was found to be the most successful of all, when compared against clove extracts using water or ethanol (there’s that ancient distillation technique hard at work).

Fight pathogens naturally. Clove essential oil also exhibits remarkable efficacy as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal agent. Big Pharma has a hard time formulating products that adequately address even one of these mechanisms, let alone all three at once. And unlike antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals, clove oil works without disrupting beneficial bacteria or compromising immune function.

It even works against antibiotic-resistant bacteria,[2] as well as supposedly incurable and hard-to-treat viruses and fungi, such as Herpes simplex[3] (applying it as a diluted solution to cold cores will instantly inhibit the replication of the virus) and Candida[4] (take a few drops of the oil in a gel capsule).

You can also apply it to teeth and gums for fast healing of abscesses and relief from the pain of toothaches (this is why clove oil is often used in mouthwashes, and why it’s been a staple of the dental industry for decades).

Full-spectrum microbiome and digestion support. Clove oil has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for disorders of the stomach, spleen, and kidneys. By soothing these organs and balancing the microbiome and overall gastrointestinal system, it provides powerful relief from indigestion, gas, diarrhea, and other stomach ailments.[5]

You can mix clove oil with warm coconut oil and rub it on the abdomen, or take it in a gel capsule for even stronger relief. And this soothing quality isn’t limited to the stomach either—applying it to areas affected by arthritic pain can also work wonders.

How to use clove essential oil

While clove essential oil is free of the many worrying side effects that accompany traditional cancer treatments, antibiotics, and other pharmaceuticals, it should still be considered a strong medicine and used with care.

Dosage is key—because of its incredible potency, too much can be harmful. A little goes a long way; in most cases, a few drops is plenty. When using internally, drop the undiluted oil into a gel capsule (just be sure to obtain medicine-grade oil).

It can also be irritating to the skin, so don’t apply it directly to the face or other sensitive areas (and always dilute it with a carrier oil like almond, jojoba, or coconut). Lastly, it acts as a natural anti-coagulant, so be very careful if you’re taking blood thinners.

As long as you follow these simple precautions, you’ll find clove essential oil to be a safe but powerful addition to your medicine cabinet.



[1] http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/or/2013/00000021/00000005/art00003

[2] http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol5Issue1/4863.pdf

[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279710777_Effect_of_essential_oils_on_the_enveloped_viruses_Antiviral_activity_of_oregano_and_clove_oils_on_herpes_simplex_virus_type_1_and_Newcastle_disease_virus

[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589904

[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21140134

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There’s perhaps no better illustration of modern medicine’s absurdity than conventional cancer treatments.

In its allopathic quest to target and destroy “enemy” cancer cells, chemotherapy and radiation therapy wreaks havoc on the rest of the body too, killing countless healthy cells, destabilizing the immune system, and weakening the body’s overall functioning.

This kind of warfare treatment ignores the fact that cancer cells are the body’s own cells that have mutated because of systemic imbalance. Just as allopathic medicine refuses to focus on lifestyle strategies for preventing this imbalance in the first place, it also chooses to target cancer cells as isolated foreign agents rather than attempting to restore overall balance throughout the body.

What is unacceptable is that modern medicine promotes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical intervention to the exclusion of all holistic and lifestyle-based treatment methods. Meanwhile, the world is full of healing foods that powerfully fight cancer without harming the body in the process.  

We’ve written at length about some of these cancer-healing foods: turmeric, ginger, olive oil, and more. But there’s two even more common food items (both of which are probably in your kitchen right now) that are extraordinary anti-cancer foods: lemon juice and baking soda.

The cancer-healing power of alkalinity

Lemons have all sorts of cancer-fighting tricks up their sleeves. They’re full of vitamin C (a dramatically underrated nutrient that’s been shown to cure a staggering array of diseases if taken at high enough doses), as well as other antioxidant phytochemicals called limonoides. Studies have even shown that lemon extracts directly kill cancer cells and inhibit the spread of cancerous tumors.[1]

Studies have even shown that lemon extracts directly kill cancer cells and inhibit the spread of cancerous tumors.

Thus, this simple fruit fights cancer just like chemotherapy and radiation, but without any of the horrendously toxic side effects.

What really sets lemons apart, though, is their ability to invigorate, strengthen, and alkalize the body (this is where baking soda comes in too). While the ability to kill and inhibit cancer cells is nothing to scoff at, the real secret to beating cancer is much more complicated: the body must be restored to its natural and ideal condition, within which cancer can never flourish. This is exactly what happens when the body is brought into a perfectly alkaline state.

A huge movement has grown up around eating an alkaline diet, and for good reason. It’s universally understood that the body simply functions more optimally when an ideal pH level is maintained (on the pH scale from 0-14, anything above 7 is considered alkaline, and the sweet spot for your body is right around 7.45). Studies have shown that individuals who maintain this slightly alkaline pH over time are at much lower risk for cancer, as well as many other chronic diseases.[2]

The “alkaline diet” trend has been criticized as overblown, with opponents arguing that too much alkalinity is just as bad as too much acidity.While this is true, it’s very difficult to over-alkalize the body with lifestyle choices like alkaline food and water consumption.

The majority of the American diet is extremely acidic, so it takes a concerted effort to balance the effects of eating in this way for an extended period of time. Caffeine and alcohol also strongly acidify the body. And even if you abstain from all these acidifying substances, the experience of stress (which is nearly impossible to avoid in our crazed modern society) will drop your pH into the acidic range.

Nearly everyone could stand to alkalize their bodies—and lemon juice and baking soda is an excellent way to do so.

By their very nature, baking soda and lemon are a powerful food science combination that works against chronic disease, inflammation and cancer. Once inside the body, these two therapeutic food agents begin to help create a more alkaline environment.

Here’s the bottom line: nearly everyone could stand to alkalize their bodies—and lemon juice and baking soda is an excellent way to do so. Baking soda is alkaline by nature, and while lemon juice is technically acidic, its ability to raise pH once metabolized by the body is well-documented.

Baking soda creates a more alkaline environment within

Sodium bicarbonate (known as baking soda) is a natural occurring mineral that provides many profound healing benefits. Baking soda is extremely powerful for reducing or balancing acid in the body, which is at the source of many illnesses including cancer.

The many benefits of lemons

Because alkalinity is a condition that balances the body on every level of being, the benefits of lemons extend far beyond cancer prevention and treatment (though this ability alone should be enough to prove that they’re a superfood).

They’ve been shown to act as potent antibacterial, anti-parasite, and antifungal agents (again, without harming your body’s healthy cells and gut flora like antibiotics).[3] They even calm stomach ailments (everything from bloating and constipation to more serious chronic conditions), soothe heartburn, regulate blood pressure, and balance mood disorders like anxiety and depression.[4]

Ready to reap the benefits of Lemon + Baking Soda?

By combining these two powerful foods, you not only help the body detoxify, but you also provide yourself with way to overcome the problem of cellular acidosis that might lead to serious disease.

One cup of purified water, combined with the juice of half a freshly squeezed lemon and one half teaspoon of baking soda a day is a great way to keep the fear of cancer away!

Try it today!


[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22126498

[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/

[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223417498_Antifungal_activity_of_lemon_Citrus_lemon_L_mandarin_Citrus_reticulata_L_grapefruit_Citrus_paradisi_L_and_orange_Citrus_sinensis_L_essential_oils_Food_Control

[4] http://www.naturalnews.com/054329_lemon_juice_baking_soda_cancer_prevention.html

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The mainstream oncology industry would have you believe that dangerous and invasive treatment methods like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery are the only options for fighting cancer. But a mountain of research says otherwise—a growing community of experts are beginning to recognize that conventional cancer treatments are unnecessarily risky, and that there’s a better way.

More than 600 different functional foods and natural compounds have exhibited anti-cancer properties in research settings (and even more have been used in folkloric settings for thousands of years). Needless to say, these natural cancer fighters work their magic without the debilitating side effects of chemotherapy and radiation.

And the real kicker that has researchers in awe is that a handful of phytonutrients found in common foods are capable of directly targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs), the normally untouchable “mother cells” that control the growth and proliferation of cancer cell colonies. We talked before about how this CSC-fighting capacity gives both turmeric and ginger an advantage over chemotherapy.

In previous articles, we’ve also discussed the nested levels of corruption in the world of oncology—cancer rates are continuing to skyrocket despite the availability of dramatically safer and more effective modes of cancer treatment. In some states, it’s even illegal for doctors to administer any form of alternative cancer treatment (and even when holistic oncology isn’t forbidden by law, it’s still rarely covered by any form of insurance).

The tide is finally beginning to turn, though. One prominent study focused on examining the anti-cancer effects of blueberry isolates. Researchers not only reported on the efficacy of blueberry phytonutrients for killing cancer stem cells, but also noted that on the contrary, radiation actually enriched the CSC populations of malignant tumors and made them more resistant to treatment.[1]

Corruption aside, let’s remain optimistic and assume that with enough research into functional foods and phytonutrients, the “cancer industry” will finally morph into something that serves the health of patients, not the wallets of pharmaceutical and mammogram manufacturers. In this article, we’ll focus on highlighting some of the other cancer-fighting foods that are paving the way toward a better future for cancer patients.

Ten more food nutrients that stop CSCs in their tracks

There are so many profoundly anti-cancer phytonutrients that it would take volumes to discuss them all—but a new study published in the journal Anticancer Research did compile a list of some of the most powerful ones.

Here’s ten that made the list (other than turmeric and ginger, which we already know are cancer-fighting superstars).

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol that is abundant in green tea, has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis (during which the cell essentially commits suicide), and to increase the efficacy of cancer drugs (while decreasing their side effects).[2]

Baicalein, a compound found in a medicinal herb called Chinese Skullcap, has been shown to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy and fight cancer on its own, especially when combined with other natural herbs and remedies.[3]

Resveratrol, which is found in grapes and peanuts, has been shown to slow the spread of cancer dramatically, and to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells.[4]

Lycopene, which gives tomatoes, watermelon, and grapefruits their pink color, significantly decreases the risk of developing cancer if integrated into one’s diet, and strongly suppresses the growth and development of many types of cancer.[5]

Luteolin, abundant in cabbage, spinach, and peppers, kills a wide range of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis or “cell cycle arrest,” which naturally halts the process of cancer cell replication.[6]

Genistein, a phytoestrogen in soy products, reduces the risk of cancer and exhibits strong antitumor properties. It’s important to remember that while this compound holds great promise, soy as a whole food has many drawbacks and should be consumed sparingly.  Make sure you are eating fermented soy and not processed soy.[7]

Oleuropein, a secoiridoid found in extra virgin olive oil, inhibits the initial onset of cancer, suppresses tumor proliferation, and induces apoptosis in cancer cells.[8]

Beta-carotene, found in orange-colored fruits and vegetables (carrots), stops cancer in its tracks by reducing the self-renewing properties of cancer stem cells.[9]

Sulforaphane, a phytonutrient in cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, bok choy), induces apoptosis not only in differentiated cancer cells, but also in cancer stem cells. For this reason, it also reduces the risk of relapse dramatically (because, by killing cancer stem cells, the root of the problem is dealt with).[10]

Isothiocyanates, which are also found in cruciferous vegetables, exhibit powerful cancer prevention and tumor-suppressing properties. As you can see, your mother was right when she told you to eat your greens—they contain an absolute wealth of phytonutrients and other compounds that optimize and protect nearly every aspect of your health.[11]



[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23878592

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509513/

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26254190

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013237/

[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850026/

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615542/

[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2575691/

[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997426/

[9] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199409013310912#t=article

[10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902242

[11] http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/2/10/1045

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Curcumin, a highly therapeutic component in turmeric root, is continuing to garner attention in the medical community.

Like any good alternative medicine, it’s also attracted the wrath of mainstream skeptics, who are now claiming that there’s no proof whatsoever of its medicinal value. A 2017 Forbes article revealed a possible ulterior motive by concluding with a warning that medicinal chemists should be more careful “when they go looking for new drugs in nature.”

You can see the same old dogma rearing its head in those words: the medical establishment should stop paying attention to these silly natural medicines, remedies, and foods, and get back to “real” medicine (i.e. synthetic pharmaceuticals).

Motives aside, that claim that curcumin is medicinally worthless is an incredibly bold one (even for Big Pharma and its media allies), given that there are thousands of published studies demonstrating its therapeutic value. Certainly some of them could be based on corrupted data or biased protocols, but all of them? There’s simply too much data in favor of curcumin to ignore it.

So, moving right along.

Of all the seemingly endless benefits turmeric offers, cancer treatment is perhaps the one that has conventional medical researchers most impressed

To understand how curcumin fights cancer and why this component of turmeric is considered by many to be the future of cancer treatment, we need to look at the nature of cancer and the drawbacks of conventional oncology.

Cancer: A deadly industry

Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder. This means that it’s not a foreign agent like bacteria or viruses; rather, it’s your body’s own cells that have differentiated incorrectly. Once these harmful cells begin to spread and multiply, they form colonies and progressively hamper natural functioning. Your body’s ability to fight the spread of cancer on its own is limited, especially because it’s difficult to distinguish between cancer cells and normal cells (telling them apart is called selectivity).

To help your body out, conventional oncology uses chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. These methods are effective for removing large numbers of cancer cells, but only because they’re horrendously toxic and will kill anything they touch. These treatment modalities have almost no selectivity.

The result: large numbers of healthy cells die right alongside cancer cells. The body is weakened even further, the well-known side effects of cancer treatment set in, and the patient begins a race against time—can the cancer be eradicated before his or her body becomes too weak to carry on? One study demonstrated that over 50% of patients die from the effects of chemotherapy, not from the cancer itself—and that number may be conservative.[1]

Curcumin provides a better way

Enter Curcumin.

Research has shown that this humble little molecule can accomplish what no conventional cancer treatment can: it kills cancer cells and halts the progression of the disease without damaging the body’s healthy cells, and without any negative side effects.

And it does so in a staggering number of ways (as opposed to the single-mechanism shotgun approach of chemotherapy or radiation therapy). One prominent study even has the following sub-title: “How Many Ways Can Curry Kill Cancer Cells Selectively?”[2]

As we’ve discussed in past articles, curcumin works on every level to prevent the spread of cancer. Most primarily, it heals the whole body (rather than damaging and weakening it, like chemotherapy), thus boosting your innate ability to fight cancer. It combats the root factors that allow cancer (and other imbalances) to flourish, especially inflammation, oxidative stress, and endocrine imbalance.

Curcumin even helps your body fight cancer through a sort of epigenetic enhancement, adjusting gene expressions here and there in ways that perfectly inhibit cancer’s ability to thrive.

Furthermore, curcumin directly targets and kills cancer cells. This is the mechanism that most interests hard-nosed medical researchers, because it provides an easy comparison between curcumin and conventional cancer treatments (and, one would hope, paves the way for functional foods to become an accepted treatment in the future).

As mentioned above, curcumin kills cancer cells without harming normal, healthy cells. It even targets cancer stem cells (the “mother” cells that control that growth and proliferation of cancer cell colonies)—something neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy can do.

The right way to use curcumin

One of the strikes against curcumin, according to those disparaging mainstream articles mentioned above, is that it’s very hard for the body to absorb. This is indeed the case, but it by no means precludes curcumin from being medically helpful.

You simply need to take the right form of curcumin in order to see results. Eating raw turmeric, powdered turmeric, or isolated curcumin will certainly have some benefit, but not anything near those cited above. To experience turmeric’s true cancer-fighting potential, you need to overcome the bioavailability issue.

Liposomal and micellar curcumin are by far the most bioavailable delivery methods available on the market. Purathrive Curcumin Gold combines both formulation methods to create something truly special—and it’s even mixed with ginger oil, another potent cancer fighter.



[1] http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(16)30383-7/abstract

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2758121/

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If you still haven’t outgrown your childhood aversion to broccoli, you may want to do so now—a continuing wave of research is confirming that broccoli offers even more powerful health benefits than previously imagined.

The compound that has been getting the most attention is sulfurophane. This organic sulfur molecule broke onto the scene when scientists discovered its potent anti-cancer properties, and subsequent studies have revealed a wealth of other powerful benefits.

Here’s a whirlwind tour of the reasons why broccoli deserves a prominent place in your diet (and why your mother was doing you a favor by forcing you to eat it).

Broccoli: A functional food with healing capabilities

There’s healthy foods, and then there’s functional foods—that is, foods with such powerful healing capacities that they can be used to treat acute health conditions. And broccoli—thanks to its high levels of sulfurophane and other beneficial nutrients—is perhaps one of the most promising functional foods of all.

Sulfurophane and broccoli’s other beneficial compounds—including glucoraphanin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, diindolylmethane (DIM), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)—perfectly exemplify the holistic healing power of functional foods. Traditional drugs and medications nearly always focus on specified mechanisms to the exclusion of others—as a result, they often create imbalances and side effects elsewhere in the body, even while attempting to balance the ailment in question.

Functional foods, on the other hand, balance the underlying factors that lead to optimal health, and are thus able to address an impressive variety of conditions. They do so without side effects, and without sacrificing the acute healing power that we look for in modern medications.

Take a look at some of the benefits and applications of sulfurophane that researchers have discovered so far.

Immune support. It turns out that eating broccoli can offer your immune system a serious boost. One study found that it enhances the clearance of bacteria by macrophages, increases the activity of natural killer cells, and even boosts defenses against influenza and other viruses.[1] It also helps prevent the decline in cellular immunity that normally occurs with aging by activating a protein called Nrf2.[2]

This comes as no surprise, given that sulfurophane also takes care of some of the fundamental factors associated with aging, illness, and immune dysfunction. For example, it significantly reduces both the presence of reactive oxygen species and C-reactive proteins, thus helping to ward off systemic inflammation.[3]

Detoxification. Sulfurophane also helps unburden your immune system and other defenses by dramatically improving detoxification mechanisms. In fact, it is the most potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes (endogenous antioxidants that do the bulk of detox work throughout the body). Research has demonstrated that sulfurophane triggers this cascade of enzymes by activating Nrf2[4] and by increasing cellular levels of glutathione, the body’s “master antioxidant.”[5]

Diabetes. One of the most promising applications of sulfurophane is in the treatment of diabetes. Studies have shown that eating broccoli sprouts improves many of the parameters for type 2 diabetes, including increased blood antioxidant capacity and HDL (“good”) cholesterol,[6] and decreased triglycerides, oxidative stress, insulin resistance,[7] and C-reactive protein (CRP).

They have even been shown to attenuate diabetes complications such as nephropathy, tissue damage, and cardiovascular issues.[8] For these reasons, many physicians believe that sulfurophane could serve as a complement to (or even a replacement for) metformin, the leading diabetes medication.

Obesity. Researchers are finding that many of the compounds that make broccoli so well-suited for treating type 2 diabetes can also be profoundly helpful for preventing and controlling obesity. One study demonstrated that three weeks of sulfurophane supplementation reduced weight gain, lowered levels of insulin and leptin, and improved cholesterol, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance in mice.[9]

A similar study found that sulfurophane protects against both obesity and cardiovascular disease by inhibiting fat accumulation, and reduced liver triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin.

Cancer. According to many experts, broccoli sprouts just might be the most promising anti-cancer yet discovered. Supporting research is pouring in at any increasing rate, and the results are fascinating.

Eating cruciferous vegetables (especially three to five servings per week of broccoli and broccoli sprouts) will decrease the risk of many cancers by up to 40%[10]—but that’s just the beginning. Sulfurophane also directly kills cancer cells (without harming healthy cells) through a wide variety of mechanisms,[11] and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs (while minimizing their toxic effect on the body).[12]

Now are you ready to eat your broccoli?

Sulfurophane supplements can be helpful, but there’s no substitute for good, old-fashioned broccoli. Eating at least a few servings a week will confer all the benefits discussed above, and will ensure that you’re getting all the beneficial compounds that work in synergy with sulfurophane.

Only eat lightly steamed broccoli—full cooking or boiling will denature most of the good stuff. Better yet, also give broccoli sprouts a try. They’re packed with extremely high levels of sulfurophane, and they make a delicious, spicy addition to salads and smoothies.



[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731143/

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897785/

[3] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464612000953

[4] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668525/

[5] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125483/

[6] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325157

[7] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537070

[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631497

[9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142739

[10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4432495/

[11] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10728709

[12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4432495/

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